Intelligent robots and synthetic organisms first appeared in ancient Greek mythology in ancient times. Aristotle’s development of the syllogism and his use of deductive reasoning was a key moment in humanity’s quest to understand its own intelligence. While the roots are long and deep, the history of artificial intelligence as we think of it today spans less than a century. Here’s a quick look at some of the biggest events in the field of artificial intelligence.
Warren McCullough and Walter Bates publish “A logical explanation of ideas intrinsic to neural activity.” The article proposed the first mathematical model to build a neural network.
In his book The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychology Theory, Donald Hebb proposes a theory according to which neural pathways arise from experiences and that the connections between neurons become stronger the more frequently they are used. Hebbian learning continues to be an important model in artificial intelligence.
Alan Turing publishes “Machines for Computing and Intelligence” and proposes what is now known as the Turing test, which is a method of determining whether a machine is intelligent.
Harvard alumni Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmunds built SNARC, the first neural network computer.
Claude Shannon publishes the article “Programming a computer to play chess”.
Isaac Asimov publishes “The three laws of robotics”.
Arthur Samuel develops the self-study program to play checkers.
Georgetown-IBM’s machine translation experience automatically translates 60 carefully selected Russian sentences into English.
The phrase AI was coined in the “Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” Led by John McCarthy, the conference, which defined the scope and goals of AI, widely considered the birth of AI as we know it today.
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon show that logical theory (TL) is the first reasoning program.
John McCarthy developed the Lisp artificial intelligence programming language and published an article titled “Common Sense Programs.” The paper proposed the Bayesian theory of Advice Taker, which is a complete artificial intelligence system that has the ability to learn from experience just as effectively as humans.
Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and JC Shaw developed General Problem Solving (GPS), a program designed to mimic human problem solving.
Herbert Gelenter develops the geometry test program.
Arthur Samuel coined the term machine learning while at IBM
John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the Artificial Intelligence Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
John McCarthy starts the artificial intelligence lab at Stanford.
The report from the United States government’s Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC) illustrates the lack of progress in machine translation research, a major Cold War initiative with the promise of machine translation and simultaneous Russian translation. The ALPAC report cancels all government-funded machine translation projects.
DENDRAL’s first successful expert systems, the XX and MYCIN program, designed to diagnose blood infections, were developed at Stanford.
The logic programming language PROLOG was created.
The “Lighthill Report”, which details the disappointments in AI research, is published by the British government and is leading to severe cuts in funding for AI projects.
Frustration with advances in artificial intelligence development leads to deep cuts from DARPA in academic scholarships. Along with the previous ALPAC report and the “Lighthill Report” from the previous year, the AI research and funding kiosks were sold out. This period is known as the “first winter of AI”.
Digital Equipment Corporation develops R1 (also known as XCON), the first successful commercial expert system. Designed to generate demands for new IT systems, the R1 started an investment boom in expert systems that would last for most of the decade, ending the first “AI Winter.”
Japan’s Ministry of Industry and International Trade launched an ambitious 5G computer systems project. The goal of FGCS is to develop supercomputer-like performance and a platform for developing artificial intelligence.
In response to Japan’s FGCS plan, the United States government launched the Strategic Computing Initiative to provide research